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Kamose, King of THEBES

Male - Yes, date unknown

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  • Name Kamose  
    Suffix King of THEBES 
    Gender Male 
    Died Yes, date unknown 
    • «b»

      «/b»15th PHARAOH of the 17th Dynasty of EGYPT

      Kamose«/b» was the last king of the «u»Theban «/u» «u»Seventeenth Dynasty «/u». He was probably the son of «u»Sekenenra Tao II «/u» and «u»Ahhotep I «/u» and the full brother of «u»Ahmose I «/u», founder of the «u»Eighteenth Dynasty «/u». His reign fell at the very end of the «u»Second Intermediate Period «/u». Kamose is usually ascribed a reign of three years (his highest attested regnal year), although some scholars now favor giving him a longer reign of approximately five years.«u»[3]
      His reign is important for the decisive military initiatives he took against the «u»Hyksos «/u», who had come to rule much of «u»Ancient Egypt «/u».«u»[4]«/u» His father had begun the initiatives and, quite possibly, lost his life in battle with them. It is thought that his mother, as regent, continued the campaigns after the death of Karmose (also in battle with the Hyksos), and that his full brother made the final conquest of them and united all of Egypt.

      «b»Length of reign
      «/b»His Year 3 is the only attested date for Kamose and was once thought to signal the end of his reign. However, it now appears certain that Kamose reigned for one or two more years beyond this date because he initiated a second campaign against the «u»Nubians «/u». Evidence that Kamose had started a first campaign against the Kushites is affirmed by the contents of Apophis' captured letter where the Hyksos king's plea for aid from the king of Kush is recounted in Kamose's Year 3 Second stela:
      " Do you see what Egypt has done to me? The ruler who is in it, Kamose-the-Brave, given life, is attacking me on my soil although I have not attacked him in the manner of all he has done against you. He is choosing these two lands to bring affliction upon them, my land and yours, and he has ravaged them."«u»[17]«/u» " Two separate rock-inscriptions found at Arminna and Toshka, deep in Nubia, «i»give the prenomen and nomen of Kamose and Ahmose side by side and were inscribed at the same time«/i»\emdash likely by the same draughtsman\emdash according to the epigraphic data.«u»[4]«/u» In both inscriptions "the names of Ahmose follow directly below those of Kamose and each king is given the epithet «b»«i»di'nh«/b»«/i» which was normally used only of ruling kings. «b»This indicates that both Kamose and Ahmose were ruling when the inscription were cut and consequently that they were coregents«/b»."«u»[4]«/u» Since Kamose's name was recorded first, he would have been the senior coregent. However, no mention or reference to Ahmose as king appears in Kamose's Year 3 stela which indirectly records Kamose's first campaign against the Nubians; this can only mean that Kamose appointed the young Ahmose as his junior coregent sometime after his third year prior to launching a second military campaign against the Nubians.«u»[18]«/u» As a result, Kamose's second Nubian campaign must have occurred in his Year 4 or 5. The target of Kamose's second Nubian campaign may have been the fortress at «u»Buhen «/u» which the Nubians had recaptured from Kamose's forces since a stela bearing his cartouche was deliberately erased and there is fire damage in the fort itself.«u»[19]«/u»
      A slightly longer reign of five years for Kamose has now been estimated by Ryholt and this ruler's time-line has been dated from 1554 BC to 1549 BC to take into account a one year period of coregency between Ahmose and Kamose.«u»[20]«/u» «u»Donald Redford «/u» notes that Kamose was buried very modestly, in an ungilded stock coffin which lacked even a royal «u»uraeus «/u».«u»[21]«/u» This may imply that the king died before he had enough time to complete his burial equipment presumably because he was engaged in warfare with his Kushite and Hyksos neighbours.


      «/b»The mummy of Kamose is mentioned in the «u»Abbott Papyrus «/u», which records an investigation into tomb robberies during the reign of «u»Ramesses IX «/u», about 400 years after Ahmose's internment. While his tomb was mentioned as being "in a good state",«u»[22]«/u» it is clear that his mummy was moved at some point afterward, as it was discovered in 1857 at «u»Dra' Abu el-Naga' «/u», seemingly deliberately hidden in a pile of debris. The painted and stuccoed coffin was uncovered by early Egyptologists «u»Auguste Mariette «/u» and «u»Heinrich Brugsch «/u», who noted that the mummy was in very poor shape. Buried with the mummy was a gold and silver dagger, amulets, a scarab, a bronze mirror, and a «u»pectoral «/u» in the shape of a cartouche bearing the name of his successor and brother, Ahmose.«u»[23]
      The coffin remains in Egypt, with the dagger in Brussels and the pectoral and mirror residing the «u»Louvre «/u», Paris. The name of the pharaoh inscribed on the coffin was only recognized for what it was fifty years after the original discovery, by which time the mummy, which had been left with the pile of debris on which it was found, was almost certainly, long lost.«u»[24]

      «u»1. ^«/u»«/b» Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, paperback 2006. p.94
      «u»«b»2. ^«/u»«/b» Clayton, p.94
      «u»«b»3. ^«/u»«/b» Kim SB Ryholt, «i»The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period«/i», Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, p.273. «u»ISBN 87-7289-421-0 «/u»
      4. ^ «u»«b»«i»«sup»a«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» «u»«b»«i»«sup»b«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» «u»«b»«i»«sup»c«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» Ryholt, p.273
      «u»«b»5. ^«/u»«/b» Grimal, Nicolas. «i»A History of Ancient Egypt.«/i» p.189. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
      «u»«b»6. ^«/u»«/b» James, T.G.H. «i»Egypt: From the Expulsion of the Hyksos to Amenophis I.«/i» in «i»The Cambridge Ancient History,«/i» vol. 2, part 1, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p. 290. Cambridge University Press, 1965.
      7. ^ «u»«b»«i»«sup»a«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» «u»«b»«i»«sup»b«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» "Cambridge 2:1 290"
      «u»«b»8. ^«/u»«/b» Gardiner, Sir Alan. «i»Egypt of the Pharaohs«/i», Oxford: University Press, (1961), p.166"
      «u»«b»9. ^«/u»«/b» Gardiner, Sir Alan. «i»Egypt of the Pharaohs«/i», 1961, reprint Oxford University Press, 1979, p.166
      «b»10«/b» ^ «u»«b»«i»«sup»a«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» «u»«b»«i»«sup»b«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» «u»«b»«i»«sup»c«/u»«/b»«/i»«/sup» James, T.G.H. «i»Egypt: From the Expulsion of the Hyksos to Amenophis I.«/i» in «i»The Cambridge Ancient History,«/i» vol. 2, part 1, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.291. Cambridge University Press, 1965.
      «u»«b»11 ^«/u»«/b» Spalinger, Anthony J. «i»War in Ancient Egypt.«/i» , Blackwell Publishing, 2005, p.3.
      «u»«b»12 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, pp.172-175
      «u»«b»13 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, pp.173-175
      «u»«b»14^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, pp.173-174
      «u»«b»15 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, p.172
      «u»«b»16 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, pp.182-83
      «u»«b»17 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, p.181
      «u»«b»18 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, p.274
      «u»«b»19 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, pp.181-182
      «u»«b»20 ^«/u»«/b» Ryholt, p.204
      «u»«b»21 ^«/u»«/b» Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies. Toronto, 1967
      «u»«b»22 ^«/u»«/b» "«u»The Abbott Papyrus <>«/u»". «i»«/i». «u»<>«/u». Retrieved 2007-01-04.
      «u»«b»23 ^«/u»«/b» Brier, Bob. «i»Egyptian Mummies«/i». p.259-260. William Morrow and Company, Inc. 1994. «u»ISBN 0-688-10272-7 «/u»
      «u»«b»24 ^«/u»«/b» Brier, Bob. «i»Egyptian Mummies«/i». p.260. William Morrow and Company, Inc. 1994. «u»ISBN 0-688-10272-7

      «tab»«/b»Gardiner, Sir Alan. «i»Egypt of the Pharaohs«/i». Oxford: University Press, 1964, 1961.
      «tab»Montet, Pierre. «i»Eternal Egypt«/i», translated from the French by Doreen Weightman. London, 1964
      «tab»Pritchard, James B. (Editor). «i»Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament«/i» (3rd edition). Princeton, 1969.
      «tab»Redford, Donald B. «i»History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies«/i». Toronto, 1967.
      «tab»Ryholt, Kim SB, «i»The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications«/i», Copenhagen, (Museum Tusculanum Press:1997) «u»ISBN 87-7289-421-0 «/u»
    Person ID I61712  Glenn Cook Family
    Last Modified 18 Dec 2009 

    Father Seqenenre Tao II, King) of THEBES,   b. Abt 1580 B.C.,   d. 1553 B.C. 
    Mother Ahhotep I, Queen of EGYPT,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Family ID F551617753  Group Sheet

    Family Ahhotep II,   d. Yes, date unknown 
     1. Ahmose-Nefertari,   d. Yes, date unknown
    Last Modified 17 Dec 2009 
    Family ID F551617762  Group Sheet